International Guidelines for Test Use

Key Purpose and Scope of the Guidelines

The Guidelines

Appendix A: Guidelines for an outline policy on testing.

Appendix B: Guidelines for developing contracts between parties involved in the testing process.

Appendix C: Points to consider when making arrangements for testing people with disabilities or impairments

Appendix D. Conditions governing the translation of the ITC Guidelines on Test Use.

References References

Acknowledgements

Bibliography

 

Key Purpose and Scope of the Guidelines

Key purpose

Scope of the Guidelines

Who the Guidelines are for

Contextual factors

Knowledge, Understanding, and Skill

Return to top

 

Key purpose

A competent test user will use tests appropriately, professionally, and in an ethical manner, paying due regard to the needs and rights of those involved in the testing process, the reasons for testing, and the broader context in which the testing takes place.

This outcome will be achieved by ensuring that the test user has the necessary competencies to carry out the testing process, and the knowledge and understanding of tests and test use that inform and underpin this process

Return to key purpose and scope of guidelines

Scope of the Guidelines

 Any attempt to provide a precise definition of a ‘test’ or of ‘testing’ as a process, is likely to fail, as it will tend to exclude some procedures that should be included and include others that should be excluded.  For the purpose of these Guidelines, the terms ‘test’ and ‘testing’ should be interpreted broadly. Whether an assessment procedure is labelled a ‘test’ or not is immaterial. These Guidelines will be relevant for many assessment procedures that are not called ‘tests’ or that seek to avoid the designation ‘test’.  Rather than provide a single definition, the following statements attempt to map out the domain covered by the Guidelines.

·      Testing includes a wide range of procedures for use in psychological, occupational and educational assessment.

·      Testing may include procedures for the measurement of both normal and abnormal or dysfunctional behaviours.

·      Testing procedures are normally designed to be administered under carefully controlled or standardised conditions that embody systematic scoring protocols.

·      These procedures provide measures of performance and involve the drawing of inferences from samples of behaviour.

·      They also include procedures that may result in the qualitative classification or ordering of people (e.g., in terms of type).

Any procedure used for ‘testing’, in the above sense, should be regarded as a ‘test’, regardless of its mode of administration; regardless of whether it was developed by a professional test developer; and regardless of whether it involves sets of questions, or requires the performance of tasks or operations (e.g., work samples, psycho-motor tracking tests).

Tests should be supported by evidence of reliability and validity for their intended purpose. Evidence should be provided to support the inferences that may be drawn from the scores on the test. This evidence should be accessible to the test user and available for independent scrutiny and evaluation. Where important evidence is contained in technical reports that are difficult to access, fully referenced synopses should be provided by the test distributor.

The test use Guidelines presented here should be considered as applying to all such procedures, whether or not they are labelled as ‘psychological tests’ or ‘educational tests’ and whether or not they are adequately supported by accessible technical evidence.

Many of these Guidelines will apply also to other assessment procedures that lie outside the domain of ‘tests’. They may be relevant for any assessment procedure that is used in situations where the assessment of people has a serious and meaningful intent and which, if misused, may result in personal loss or psychological distress (for example, job selection interviews, job performance appraisals, diagnostic assessment of learning support needs).

The Guidelines do not apply to the use of materials that may have a superficial resemblance to tests, but which all participants recognise are intended to be used only for purposes of amusement or entertainment (e.g., life-style inventories in magazines or newspapers).

Return to key purpose and scope of guidelines

 

Who the Guidelines are for

The Guidelines apply to the use of tests in professional practice. As such they are directed primarily towards:

·      The purchasers and holders of test materials;

·      Those responsible for selecting tests and determining the use to which tests will be put;

·      Those who administer, score or interpret tests;

·      Those who provide advice to others on the basis of test results (e.g., recruitment consultants, educational and career counsellors, trainers, succession planners);

·      Those concerned with the process of reporting test results and providing feedback to people who have been tested.

The Guidelines will be of relevance to others involved in the use of tests as defined above. These include:

·      the developers of tests,

·      the suppliers of tests,

·      those involved in the training of test users,

·      those who take tests and their relevant others (e.g., parents, spouses, partners),

·      professional bodies and other associations with an interest in the use of psychological and educational testing, and

·      policy makers and legislators.

While aimed primarily at professional practice, most aspects of the good practice embodied in the Guidelines will also be of relevance to those who use tests solely for research purposes.

The Guidelines are not intended to cover every type of assessment technique (e.g., unstructured or semi-structured interviews, assessed group activities) or every situation in which assessment occurs (e.g., employment assessment centers). Yet many of the Guidelines are likely to be applicable in assessment situations and for purposes more general than those concerned primarily with psychological and educational testing (for example, the use of assessment centers, for employee placement or selection, semi-structured and structured interviews, or assessment for selection, career guidance and counseling).

Return to key purpose and scope of guidelines

 

Contextual factors

The Guidelines are applicable internationally. They may be used to develop specific local standards through a process of contextualisation. It is recognised that there are many factors which affect how standards may be managed and realised in practice. These contextual factors have to be considered at the local level when interpreting the Guidelines and defining what they would mean in practice within any particular setting.

The factors that need to be considered in turning Guidelines into specific standards include:

·      social, political, institutional, linguistic, and cultural differences between assessment settings;

·      the laws of the country in which testing is taking place;

·      existing national guidelines and performance standards set by professional psychological societies and associations;

·      differences relating to individual versus group assessment;

·      differences related to the test setting (educational, clinical, work-related and other assessment);

·      who the primary recipients of the test results are (e.g., the test-takers, their parents or guardian, the test-developer, an employer or other third party);

·      differences relating to the use of test results (e.g., for decision-making, as in selection screening, or for providing information to support guidance or counselling); and

·      variations in the degree to which the situation provides opportunity for the accuracy of interpretations to be checked in the light of subsequent information and amended if needed.

Return to key purpose and scope of guidelines

 

Knowledge, Understanding, and Skill

Knowledge, understanding and skill underpin all the test user competencies. The nature of their content and level of detail are likely to vary between countries, areas of application and as a function of the level of competence required to use a test.

 The Guidelines do not contain detailed descriptions of these. However, when applying the Guidelines for use in specific situations the relevant knowledge, skills, abilities and other personal characteristics will need to be specified. This specification is part of the process of contextualisation, through which generic guidelines are developed into specific standards. The main areas descriptions of knowledge, understanding and skills need to cover include the following.

 Relevant declarative knowledge

 This includes:

·      knowledge of basic psychometric principles and procedures, and the technical requirements of tests (e.g., reliability, validity, standardisation);

·      knowledge of tests and measurement sufficient to enable the proper understanding of test results;

·      knowledge and understanding of relevant theories and models of ability, of personality or other psychological constructs, or of psychopathology, as necessary to properly inform the choice of tests and the interpretation of test results; and

·      knowledge of the tests and the test suppliers relevant to one’s area of practice.

 Instrumental knowledge and skills

 These include:

·      knowledge and skills relating to specific assessment procedures or instruments, including the use of computer-based assessment procedures;

·      specialised knowledge of and practitioner skills associated with using those tests that are within one’s repertoire of assessment tools; and

·      knowledge and understanding of the construct or constructs underlying test scores, where this is important if valid inferences are to be drawn from the test results.

General personal task-related skills

This includes:

·      the performance of relevant activities such as test administration, reporting, and the provision of feedback to test takers and other clients;

·      oral and written communication skills sufficient for the proper preparation of test takers, test administration, the reporting of test results, and for interaction with relevant others (e.g., parents, or organisational policy makers); and

·      interpersonal skills sufficient for the proper preparation of test takers, the administration of tests, and the provision of feedback of test results.

Contextual knowledge and skills

This includes:

·      knowing when and when not to use tests;

·      knowing how to integrate testing with other less formal components of the assessment situation (e.g., biographical data, unstructured interview and references etc.); and

·      knowledge of current professional, legal, and ethical issues relating to the use of tests, and of their practical implications for test use.

Task management skills

This includes:

·      knowledge of codes of conduct and good practice relating to the use of tests, test data, the provision of feedback, the production and storage of reports, the storage of and responsibility for test materials and test data; and

·      knowledge of the social, cultural, and political context in which the test is being used, and the ways in which such factors might affect the results, their interpretation and the use to which they are put.

Contingency management skills

This includes:

·      knowing how to deal with problems, difficulties, and breakdowns in routine;

·      knowing how to deal with a test taker's questions during test administration etc.; and

·      knowing how to deal with situations in which there is the potential for test misuse or for misunderstanding the interpretation of test scores.

Return to key purpose and scope of guidelines

Return to top

 

The Guidelines

 

1          Take responsibility for ethical test use

1.1            Act in a professional and ethical manner

1.2            Ensure they have the competence to use tests

1.3            Take responsibility for their use of tests

1.4            Ensure that test materials are kept securely

1.5            Ensure that test results are treated confidentially.

 

2          Follow good practice in the use of tests

2.1            Evaluate the potential utility of testing in an assessment situation

2.2            Choose technically sound tests appropriate for the situation

2.3            Give due consideration to issues of fairness in testing

2.4            Make necessary preparations for the testing session

2.5            Administer the tests properly

2.6            Score and analyse test results accurately

2.7            Interpret results appropriately

2.8            Communicate the results clearly and accurately to relevant others

2.9            Review the appropriateness of the test and its use

 

The Guidelines

1          Take responsibility for ethical test use

Competent test users should:

1.1       Act in a professional and ethical manner

1.1.1    Promote and maintain professional and ethical standards.

1.1.2    Have a working understanding of current professional and ethical issues and debates relating to the use of tests in their field of application.

1.1.3    Implement an explicit policy on testing and test use.[1]

1.1.4    Ensure that people who work for or with them adhere to appropriate professional and ethical standards of behaviour.

1.1.5        Conduct communications with due concern for the sensitivities of the test taker and other relevant parties.

1.1.6        Represent tests and testing in a positive and balanced manner in communications with and through the media.

1.1.7    Avoid situations in which they may have or be seen to have a vested interest in the outcome of the assessment, or where the assessment might damage the relationship with their client.

Return to The Guidelines

1.2       Ensure they have the competence to use tests

 1.2.1    Work within the limits of scientific principle and substantiated experience.

1.2.2    Set and maintain high personal standards of competence.

1.2.3    Know the limits of their own competence and operate within those limits.

1.2.4    Keep up with relevant changes and advances relating to the tests they use, and to test development, including changes in legislation and policy, which may impact on tests and test use.

Return to The Guidelines

1.3       Take responsibility for their use of tests

 1.3.1    Only offer testing services and only use tests for which they are qualified.

1.3.2    Accept responsibility for the choice of tests used, and for the recommendations made.

1.3.3    Provide clear and adequate information to participants in the testing process about the ethical principles and legal regulations governing psychological testing.

1.3.4    Ensure that the nature of the contract between test-taker and tester is clear and understood.[2]

1.3.5    Be alert to any unintended consequences of test use.

1.3.6    Endeavour to avoid doing harm or causing distress to those involved in the testing process.

Return to The Guidelines

1.4       Ensure that test materials are kept securely

1.4.1    Ensure secure storage of and control access to test materials

1.4.2   Respect copyright law and agreements that exist with respect to a test including any prohibitions on the copying or transmission of materials in electronic or other forms to other people, whether qualified or otherwise.

1.4.3    Protect the integrity of the test by not coaching individuals on actual test materials or other practice materials that might unfairly influence their test performance.

1.4.4    Ensure that test techniques are not described publicly in such a way that their usefulness is impaired

Return to The Guidelines

1.5       Ensure that test results are treated confidentially.

1.5.1    Specify who will have access to results and define levels of confidentiality.

1.5.2    Explain levels of confidentiality to individuals before tests are administered.

1.5.3    Limit access to results to those with a right to know.

1.5.4    Obtain the relevant consents before releasing results to others.

1.5.5    Protect data kept on file so that only those who have a right of access can obtain them.

1.5.6    Establish clear guidelines as to how long test data are to be kept on file.

1.5.7    Remove names and other personal identifiers from databases of results that are archived, for research use, development of norms or other statistical purposes.

Return to The Guidelines

 

2            Follow good practice in the use of tests

2.1            Evaluate the potential utility of testing in an assessment situation

Competent test users will:

2.1.1   Produce a reasoned justification for the use of tests.

2.1.2    Ensure there has been a thorough analysis of the client’s needs, reasons for referral, or of the diagnostic category, condition, or job for which assessment is being used.

2.1.3        Establish that the knowledge, skills, abilities, aptitudes or other characteristics, which the tests are intended to measure, are correlates of relevant behaviours in the context about which inferences are to be drawn.

2.1.4        Seek other relevant collateral sources of information.

2.1.5    Assess the advantages and disadvantages of using tests compared with other sources of information.

2.1.6    Ensure that full use is made of all available collateral sources of information.

Return to The Guidelines

2.2            Choose technically sound tests appropriate for the situation

Competent test users will:

2.2.1   Examine current information covering the range of potentially relevant tests (e.g., from specimen sets, independent reviews, expert advice), before selecting a test to use.

2.2.2   Determine that the test’s technical and user documentation provides sufficient information to enable evaluation of the following:

a)         scope or coverage and representativeness of test content, appropriateness of norm groups, difficulty level of content etc.;

b)         accuracy of measurement and reliability demonstrated with respect to relevant populations;

c)         validity (demonstrated with respect to relevant populations) and relevance for the required use;

d)         freedom from systematic bias in relation to the intended test taker groups;

e)         acceptability to those who will be involved in their use, including perceived fairness and relevance;

f)          practicality, including time required, costs, and resource needs.

2.2.3    Avoid the use of tests that have inadequate or unclear supporting technical documentation;

2.2.4    Use tests only for those purposes where relevant and appropriate validity evidence is available.

2.2.5    Avoid judging a test solely on the basis of face value, test-user testimonials, or advice from those with a vested commercial interest.

2.2.6    Respond to requests from relevant interested parties (e.g. test takers, parents, managers) by providing sufficient information to allow them to understand why the test was chosen.

Return to The Guidelines

2.3       Give due consideration to issues of fairness in testing

When tests are to be used with individuals from different groups (e.g., groups differing in terms of gender, cultural background, education, ethnic origin, or age), competent test users will make all reasonable efforts to ensure that:

2.3.1    The tests are unbiased and appropriate for the various groups that will be tested.

2.3.2    The constructs being assessed are meaningful in each of the groups represented.

2.3.3        Evidence is available on possible group differences in performance on the test.

2.3.4        Evidence relating to differential item functioning (DIF) is available, where relevant.

2.3.5    There is validity evidence to support the intended use of the test in the various groups.

2.3.6    Effects of group differences not relevant to the main purpose (e.g., differences in motivation to answer, or reading ability) are minimised.

2.3.7        In all cases, Guidelines relating to the fair use of tests are interpreted in the context of local policy and legislation.[3]

 When testing in more than one language (within or across countries[4]), competent test users will make all reasonable efforts to ensure that:

 2.3.8    Each language or dialect version has been developed using a rigorous methodology meeting the requirements of best practice.

2.3.9    The developers have been sensitive to issues of content, culture and language.

2.3.10  The test administrators can communicate clearly in the language in which the test is to be administered.

2.3.11  The test taker’s level of proficiency in the language in which the test will be administered is determined systematically and the appropriate language version is administered or bilingual assessment is performed, if appropriate.

 When tests are to be used with people with disabilities, competent test users will make all reasonable efforts to ensure that:

2.3.12  Advice is sought from relevant experts on the potential effects of the various disabilities on test performance.

2.3.13 Potential test takers are consulted and their needs and wishes are given proper consideration.

2.3.14  Adequate arrangements are made when test takers include people with hearing, visual or motor impairments, or other disabilities (e.g., learning impairments, dyslexia .).

2.3.15  Use of alternative assessment procedures, rather than modifications to tests, is considered (e.g., other more suitable tests, or alternative structured forms of assessment).

2.3.16  Relevant professional advice is sought if the degree of modification required for use by those with disabilities is beyond the experience of the test user.

2.3.17  Modifications, when necessary, are tailored to the nature of the disability and are designed to minimize impact on score validity.

2.3.18  Information regarding the nature of any modifications made to a test or testing procedure is provided to those who interpret or act upon the test scores whenever the withholding of such information might otherwise result in biased interpretation or an unfair decision.

Return to The Guidelines

2.4       Make necessary preparations for the testing session

The competent test user will make all reasonable efforts to:

2.4.1    Provide relevant parties in a timely manner with clear information concerning the purpose of testing, ways in which they might best prepare for the test session, and the procedures to be followed.

2.4.2    Advise test takers of the linguistic or dialectic groups for which the test is considered appropriate.

2.4.3    Send test takers approved practice, sample, or preparation materials where these are available and where this is consistent with recommended practice for the tests concerned.

2.4.4    Explain clearly to test takers their rights and responsibilities[5].

2.4.5    Gain the explicit consent of test takers or their legal guardians or representatives before any testing is done.

2.4.6    Explain, when testing is optional, the consequences of taking or not taking the test to relevant parties so that they can make an informed choice.

2.4.7    Make the necessary practical arrangements by ensuring that:

a)         preparations conform to those stipulated in the publisher’s manual;

b)         locations and facilities for testing have been arranged well in advance, and the physical environment is accessible, safe, quiet, free from distractions and appropriate for the purpose;

c)         sufficient materials are available and have been checked to ensure there are no marks left by previous users on question booklets or answer sheets;

d)         staff who will be involved in the administration are competent;

e)         appropriate arrangements have been made for the testing of people with disabilities[6].

2.4.8   Anticipate likely problems and counteract them through thorough preparation of materials and instructions.

Return to The Guidelines

2.5    Administer the tests properly

The competent test user will:

2.5.1    Establish rapport by welcoming test-takers and briefing them in a positive fashion.

2.5.2    Act to reduce test-taker anxiety and avoid creating or reinforcing unnecessary anxiety.

2.5.3    Ensure potential sources of distraction (e.g., wristwatch alarms, mobile phones, pagers) are removed.

2.5.4    Ensure test-takers have the materials they require for taking the test before it begins.

2.5.5    Administer tests under appropriate supervised conditions.

2.5.6   Wherever possible, administer test instructions in the primary language of the test takers, even where the test content is designed to provide evidence of knowledge or skills in a non-primary language.

2.5.7    Adhere strictly to the directions and instructions as specified in the test manual while making reasonable accommodations for persons with disabilities.

2.5.8    Read instructions clearly and calmly.

2.5.9    Provide adequate time for examples to be completed.

2.5.10  Observe and record deviations from test procedures.

2.5.11  Monitor and record response times accurately where appropriate.

2.5.12  Ensure all materials are accounted for at the end of each testing session.

2.5.13  Administer tests by modes that permit adequate and appropriate levels of supervision and authentication of the identity of the test takers.

2.5.14  Ensure those assisting the administration have had proper training.

2.5.15  Ensure test takers are not left unattended or subjected to distracting activities during a supervised test session.

2.5.16  Provide appropriate assistance to test takers who show signs of undue distress or anxiety.

Return to The Guidelines

2.6       Score and analyze test results accurately

Competent test users will:

2.6.1    Follow carefully the standardized procedures for scoring.

2.6.2    Carry out appropriate raw score conversions to other relevant types of scale.

2.6.3    Choose scale types relevant to the intended use of the test scores.

2.6.4    Check score scale-conversions and other clerical procedures for accuracy.

2.6.5    Ensure that invalid conclusions are not drawn from comparisons of scores with norms that are not relevant to the people being tested or are outdated.

2.6.6    Compute, where appropriate, composite scores using standard formulae and equations.

2.6.7    Employ procedures to screen test results to recognise improbable or unreasonable scores.

2.6.8    Clearly and accurately label scales in reports, and provide clear identification of norms, scales types, and equations used.

Return to The Guidelines

 

2.7            Interpret results appropriately

  Competent test users will:

2.7.1    Have a good professional understanding of the test’s theoretical or conceptual basis, technical documentation and guidance on the use and interpretation of the scale scores.

2.7.2    Have a good understanding of the scales used, the characteristics of the norm or comparison groups, and the limitations of the scores.

2.7.3    Take steps to minimise the effects on test interpretation of any biases the test interpreter may have towards members of the test taker’s cultural group.

2.7.4    Use appropriate norm or comparison groups where available.

2.7.5    Interpret results in the light of available information about the person being tested (including age, gender, schooling, culture and other factors) with due regard for the technical limitations of the test, the assessment context, and the needs of those with a legitimate interest in the outcome of the process.

2.7.6    Avoid over-generalising  the results of one test to traits or human characteristics which are not measured by the test.

2.7.7    Consider each scale’s reliability, error of measurement and other qualities which may have artificially lowered or raised results when interpreting scores.

2.7.8    Give due consideration to the available evidence of validity, with respect to the construct being measured for members of the test takers’ relevant demographic groups (e.g., cultural, age, social class, and gender groups).

2.7.9    Use passing scores (cut-scores) in test interpretation only when evidence of the validity for the pass scores is available and supports its use.

2.7.10  Be aware of negative social stereotyping that may pertain to members of the test taker’s group (e.g., cultural group, age, social class, and gender) and avoid interpreting tests in a manner that perpetuates such stereotyping.

2.7.11  Take into account any individual or group variations from standard procedures in test administration.

2.7.12  Take into account any evidence of prior experience with the test where there are data available relating to the effect of such experience on test performance.

Return to The Guidelines

 

2.8    Communicate the results clearly and accurately to relevant others

Competent test users will:

2.8.1    Identify appropriate parties who may legitimately receive test results.

2.8.2        With the informed consent of the test takers, or their legal representatives, produce written or oral reports for relevant interested parties.

2.8.3        Ensure that the technical and linguistic levels of any reports are appropriate for the level of understanding of the recipients.

2.8.4    Make clear that the test data represent just one source of information and should always be considered in conjunction with other information.

2.8.5    Explain how the importance of the test results should be weighted in relation to other information about the people being assessed.

2.8.6    Use a form and structure for a report that is appropriate to the context of the assessment.

2.8.7    When appropriate, provide decision-makers with information on how results may be used to inform their decisions.

2.8.8    Explain and support the use of test results used to classify people into categories (e.g., for diagnostic purposes or for job selection).

2.8.9    Include within written reports a clear summary, and when relevant, specific recommendations.

2.8.10  Present oral feedback to test takers in a constructive and supportive manner.

Return to The Guidelines

 

2.9            Review the appropriateness of the test and its use

Competent test users will:

2.9.1   Monitor and periodically review changes over time in the populations of individuals being tested and any criterion measures being used.

2.9.2    Monitor tests for evidence of adverse impact.

2.9.3    Be aware of the need to re-evaluate the use of a test if changes are made to its form, content, or mode of administration.

2.9.4    Be aware of the need to re-evaluate the evidence of validity if the purpose for which a test is being used is changed.

2.9.5    Where possible, seek to validate tests for the use to which they are being put, or participate in formal validation studies.

2.9.6    Where possible, assist in updating information regarding the norms, reliability and validity of the test by providing relevant test data to the test developers, publishers or researchers.

Return to The Guidelines

Return to Top

 

Appendix A: Guidelines for an outline policy on testing.

 

The following guidelines relate to the need for organizations to consider their policy on testing in a systematic manner and to ensure that everyone involved is clear as to what the policy is. The need for an explicit policy on testing is not confined to large organizations. Small and medium-sized enterprises that use testing, as well as large ones, should pay regard to testing policy in the same way as they do to health and safety, equal opportunities, disability and other areas relating to good practice in the management, treatment and care of personnel.

While the following considerations or requirements may need to be adapted for use by individual test users operating as sole professional practitioners, it remains important that they have a clear understanding of their own policy and can communicate it to others.

A policy on testing is produced in order to:

·        ensure personal and organizational aims are met;

·        ensure that potential misuse is avoided;

·        demonstrate commitment to good practice;

·        ensure test use is appropriate for its purpose;

·        ensure tests do not discriminate unfairly;

·        ensure evaluations are based on comprehensive, relevant information;

·        ensure tests are only used by qualified staff.

A policy on testing will need to cover most if not all the following issues:

·        proper test use;

·        security of materials and scores;

·        who can administer tests, score and interpret tests;

·        qualification requirements for those who will use the tests;

·        test user training;

·        test taker preparation;

·        access to materials and security;

·        access to test results and test score confidentiality issues;

·        feedback of results to test takers;

·        responsibility to test takers before, during and after test session;

·        responsibilities & accountability of each individual user.

Any policy needs to be regularly reviewed and updated as advances in testing, or changes in practice occur.

Relevant parties need to have access to and be informed about the policy on testing.

Responsibility for any organization's testing policy should reside with a qualified test user who has the authority to ensure implementation of and adherence to the policy.

Return to Top

 

Appendix B: Guidelines for developing contracts between parties involved in the testing process

Contracts between the test user and test takers should be consistent with good practice, legislation and the test user’s policy on testing. The following is provided as an example of the sort of matters such a contract might cover.  The details will vary as a function of the assessment context (e.g., occupational, educational, clinical, forensic) and local or national regulations and laws.

Contracts between test user, test takers and other parties are often implicit and unspoken (at least in part). Making clear the expectations, roles and responsibilities of all parties can help to avoid misunderstanding, harm, and litigation.

For their part, the test user will endeavor to:

b.1       inform test takers of their rights regarding how their test scores will be used and their rights of access to them[8];

b.2       give adequate prior warning of any financial charges that may be entailed by the testing process, who will be responsible for their payment, and when payment will be due;

b.3       treat test takers with courtesy, respect and impartiality regardless of race, gender, age, disability, etc.;

b.4       use tests of proven quality, appropriate for the test takers, and appropriate for the assessment purpose;

b.5       inform test takers prior to testing about the purpose of the assessment, the nature of the test, to whom test results will be reported and the planned use of the results;

b.6       give advance notice of when the test will be administered, and when results will be available, and whether or not test takers or others may obtain copies of the test, their completed answer sheets, or their scores[9];

b.7       have a trained person administer the test and have the results interpreted by a qualified person;

b.8       ensure test takers know if a test is optional and, when it is, the consequences of taking or not taking the test;

b.9       ensure test takers understand the conditions, if any, under which they may re-take tests, have tests re-scored, or have their scores cancelled;

b.10     ensure test takers know that they will have their results explained to them as soon as possible after taking the test in easily understood terms;

b.11     ensure test takers understand that their results are confidential to the extent allowed by law and best practice;

b.12     inform test takers who will have access to their results, and the conditions which scores will be released;

b.13     ensure that test takers are aware of the procedures for making complaints or notifying problems;

 

The test user will inform test-takers that they are expected to:

b.14     treat others with courtesy and respect during the testing process;

b.15     ask questions prior to testing if uncertain about why the test is to be administered, how it will be administered, what they will be required to do and what will be done with the results;

b.16     inform an appropriate person about any condition that they believe might invalidate the  test results or which they would wish to have taken into consideration;

b.17     follow the instructions of the test administrator;

b.18     be aware of the consequences of not taking a test if they choose not to take it, and be prepared to accept those consequences;

b.19     ensure that, if required to pay for any the testing service(s), payment is made by the agreed date.

Return to Top

 

Appendix C: Points to consider when making arrangements for testing people with disabilities or impairments

Considerable care and expertise is needed when the mode of administration of a test has to be changed to accommodate the needs of people with disabilities.  As always, local and national law and practice[10] need to be considered, and the individual’s rights to privacy must be respected. In seeking information regarding types and levels of disability, inquiries should only seek information relating to each person’s ability to undertake the activities required to complete the test. Particular care needs to be exercised in relation to employment testing[11].

There is no simple rule of thumb that can be used to ensure that a test is administered fairly for people with all types of disability.  It is a matter of professional judgement as to whether it is better to use some alternative form of assessment, or to modify the test or its mode of administration. In practice, it is rarely possible to norm modified tests on sufficient samples of people with equivalent disability in order to ensure comparability of the test with the standardised version. However, where data exist on, for example, the effects of changing time limits, use of Braille or audiotape spoken versions of tests, such data should guide the user in making the necessary accommodations. While full standardization of a modified version may not be possible, pilot testing on small samples of individuals should be carried out whenever practical.  

Given the dearth of information about the performance of people with disabilities on tests (whether modified or not), it is often more appropriate for test result to be used in a more qualitative manner. They can be used to give an indication of the characteristic being assessed (ability, motivation, personality, etc.), which can be supplemented and supported by information gathered using other methods.

For individual assessment, the assessor can usually tailor the assessment procedures to the capabilities of the person who is being assessed. However, particular issues arise in group testing (e.g., for selection into employment).  Here there may be practical difficulties involved in varying the mode of administration for particular individuals within a group administration setting. Furthermore, all parties may see differences in treatment as being unfair. For example if more time is given for test completion, those with the disability may be conscious that they are being treated ‘differently’, and those without the disability may feel that the extra time provides an unfair advantage.

Advice on special needs can usually be obtained from relevant disability organisations as well as the individual test takers. It is generally helpful (where the law permits) to ask the individual directly in a non-threatening and supportive way if there are any considerations that need to be taken into account[12]. In many cases such consultation will enable suitable modifications to be made to the test taking environment without requiring changes to the test itself.

The following outline protocol provides a general guide to the process of deciding whether to modify testing and how to carry out the modification. Essentially, disability may contribute no variance to test scores, contribute construct relevant variance or construct irrelevant variance. In the first case, no modifications are necessary. In the final case, modifications should be aimed at removing the irrelevant source of variance (by suitable modification of the test conditions or substitution of a more suitable test). For the second case (construct relevant variance), however, modification to the test will affect the relevance of the test scores.

c.1   Is the disability likely to have an effect upon test performance? Many people have disabilities that would not affect test performance. In such cases, it would be inappropriate to make accommodations for them.

c.2   If the disability is likely to affect test performance, then is the effect on performance incidental to the construct being measured? For example, a person with an arthritic hand may have trouble with a speeded test which involves writing. If the ability to perform manual tasks rapidly is part of the construct being measured, then the test should not be changed. However, if the purpose is to assess visual checking speed, then an alternative mode of response would be appropriate.

c.3   When the particular disability is incidental to the construct being measured but is likely to affect the individual’s performance on the test, then modification of the procedure may be considered.

c.4   Users should always consult the test manual and the publisher for guidance on modification and for information regarded alternative formats and procedures.

c.5   Users should also consult relevant disability organizations for advice and guidance on the possible implications of a specific disability, relevant literature or documentation, and the sort of adaptations or accommodations that may prove helpful.

c.6   Any modifications made to the test or test administration procedures should be carefully documented along with the rationale behind the modification.

Return to Top

 

Appendix D. Conditions governing the translation of the ITC Guidelines on Test Use.

The following conditions apply to official versions of the International Test Commission (ITC) Guidelines. The conditions delegate authority for checking the quality and accuracy of translation to the local national Psychological Association.

1.      There is only to be one official translation in each country.

2.      Copyright of the original version remains vested in the ITC. The ITC will give permission for an official version to be produced under the auspices of the local national Psychological Association, subject to a copy being lodged with the ITC and the Psychological Association taking responsibility for the accuracy of the translation.

3.      A letter formally approving the accuracy of the translation, from the relevant officer of the local national Psychological Association, must be lodged with the ITC.

4.      The ITC will reserve the right to distribute copies of that translation itself without payment to the Psychological Association, and will want to have the guidelines available through the ITC website.

5.      The official version should be referred to as:

"International Test Commission (ITC) Guidelines on Test Use: [Language] Version. Translation authorised by the [full name of the Psychological Association]"

6.      The official version should have both the logo of the Psychological Association and that of the ITC clearly displayed.

7.      The Guidelines themselves should be made available either free of charge or on a not-for-profit basis. Locally developed supporting documents, applications, qualification procedures, etc that build on the Guidelines may be charged for on a commercial basis.

8.      Normal copyright rules apply, and permission will need to be sought by people wishing to publish extracts. In relation to the locally translated version, the ITC delegates the giving of permission for this to the local Psychological Association responsible for the translation. A notice to this effect should appear on the Guidelines document.

Return to Top

 

References

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1985). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Bartram, D. (1995). The Development of Standards for the Use of Psychological Tests in Occupational Settings: The Competence Approach. The Psychologist, May, 219-223.

Bartram, D. (1996). Test Qualifications and Test Use in the UK: The Competence Approach. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 12, 62-71.

Canadian Psychological Association. (1987). Guidelines for Educational and Psychological Testing. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

Eyde, L. D., Moreland, K. L. & Robertson, G. J. (1988). Test User Qualifications: A Data-based Approach to Promoting Good Test Use. Report for the Test User Qualifications Working Group. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Eyde, L. D., Robertson, G. J., Krug, S. E. et al (1993). Responsible Test Use: Case Studies For Assessing Human Behaviour. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Fremer, J., Diamond, E. E. & Camara, W. J. (1989). Developing a Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education. American Psychologist, 44, 1062-1067.

Hambleton, R. (1994). Guidelines for adapting educational and psychological tests: A progress report. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10, 229-244.

Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (1988). Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education. Washington DC: Joint Committee on Testing Practices.

Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (2000). Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers: Guidelines and Expectations. Washington DC: Joint Committee on Testing Practices.

Kendall, I., Jenkinson, J., De Lemos, M. & Clancy, D. (1997). Supplement to Guidelines for the use of Psychological Tests. Australian Psychological Society.

Moreland, K. L., Eyde, L. D., Robertson, G. J., Primoff, E. S. & Most, R. B. (1995). Assessment of Test User Qualifications: A Research-Based Measurement Procedure. American Psychologist, 50, 14-23.

Schafer, W. D. (1992). Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests: RUST Statement Revised. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.

Van de Vijver, F. & Hambleton, R. (1996). Translating tests: some practical guidelines. European Psychologist , 1, 89-99.

Return to Top

 

Acknowledgements

The Guidelines were prepared for the ITC Council by Professor Dave Bartram. The author is grateful for the assistance provided by Iain Coyne in the execution of this project and is grateful to the following individuals who took part in the 1997 Dublin workshop and who provided such valuable input to the development of the present Guidelines.

Ms Dusica Boben, Produktivnost, SLOVENIA;

Mr Eugene Burke, British Psychological Society, England;

Dr Wayne Camara, The College Board, USA;

Mr Jean-Louis Chabot, ANOP, FRANCE;

Mr Iain Coyne, University of Hull, England;

Dr Riet Dekker, Swets and Zeitlinger, Netherlands;

Dr Lorraine Eyde, US Office of Personnel Management, USA;

Prof Rocio Fernandez-Ballesteros, EAPA, SpAIN;

Mr Ian Florance, NFER-NELSON, England;

Prof Cheryl Foxcroft, Test Commission of South Africa, South Africa;

Dr John Fremer, The College Board,  USA;

Ms Kathia Glabeke, Commissie Psychodiagnostiek, BELGIUM;

Prof Ron Hambleton, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA;

Dr Karin Havenga, Test Commission of South Africa, South Africa;

Dr Jurgen Hogrefe, Hogrefe & Huber Verlagsgruppe, Germany;

Mr Ralf Horn, Swets and Zeitlinger, Germany;

Mr Leif Ter Laak, Saville and Holdsworth Ltd, England;

Dr Pat Lindley, British Psychological Society, England;

Mr Reginald Lombard, Test Commission of South Africa, South Africa;

Prof Jose Muniz, Spanish Psychological Association, Spain;

Ms Gill Nyfield, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd, England;

Dr Torleiv Odland, Norsk Psykologforening, Norway;

Ms Berit Sander, Danish Psychologists’ Association, DENMARK;

Prof Francois Stoll, Federation Suisse des Psychologues, Switzerland.

The author is also grateful to the many other individuals and organizations who provided feedback during the various stages of consultation and in conference presentations.  

Return to Top

 

Bibliography

The following sources were consulted during the development of the original Framework document for the Guidelines.

1.                  American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1985). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

2.                  Bartram, D. (1994). Level A Information Pack. Leicester: BPS Steering Committee on Test Standards.

3.                  Bartram, D. (1995). Level B Information Pack. Leicester: BPS Steering Committee on Test Standards.

4.                  Bartram, D. (1995). The Development of Standards for the Use of Psychological Tests in Occupational Settings: The Competence Approach. The Psychologist, May, 219-223.

5.                  Bartram, D. (1996). Test Qualifications and Test Use in the UK: The Competence Approach. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 12, 62-71.

6.                  Booth, S. A., Birthwright, W., Cooper, B., Hoyle, W., Johnson, P., Lindley, P. & Speedy, C. (undated). A Policy for the Use of Level A Psychometric Tests in Guidance,  Development and Selection. Leeds Psychometric Test Users Group.

7.                  BPS Steering Committee on Test Standards. (1995). Psychological Testing: A User's Guide. Leicester: The British Psychological Association.

8.                  Brown, D. C. (1995). Test User Qualifications. The Score Newsletter, 8-9.

9.                  Burgess, P. (1990). European Management Guides: Recruitment. London: Institute of Personnel Management.

10.              Camara, W. (1997). Use and consequences of assessments in the USA: Professional, ethical and legal issues. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 140-152.

11.              Canadian Psychological Association. (1987). Guidelines for Educational and Psychological Testing. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

12.              Canadian Psychological Association. (1991). Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

13.              Canadian Psychological Association. (undated). Illustration and Interpretation of the CPA Guidelines for Assessment of Sex Bias and Sex-fairness in Career Interest Inventories. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

14.              Clark, R. & Baron, H. (1992). Guidelines for Testing People with Disabilities. Surrey: Saville and Holdsworth Ltd.

15.              Commission for Racial Equality. (1992). Psychometric Tests and Racial Equality: A guide for Employers. London: Commission for Racial Equality.

16.              Commission for Racial Equality. (1996). Selecting Train Drivers at British Rail: A Fair Test? London: Commission for Racial Equality.

17.              Davidson, G. (1997). The ethical use of psychological tests: Australia. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 132-139.

18.              Department of Employment. (1989). Assessment Through Psychological Testing: A Guide for Training Agents. Sheffield, England: Department of Employment.

19.              Department of Employment. (1990). A Survey of Test Usage within the Careers Service. Sheffield, England: Department of Employment.

20.              Department of Employment. (1994). Psychological Testing in Careers Guidance: A Guide to Good Practice and Fair Use. Sheffield, England: Department of Employment.

21.              ECPA. (1991). Standards for Test Supply. France: ECPA.

22.              EFPPA. (1994). Draft Meta-Code of Ethics. European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations.

23.              Equal Opportunities Commission. (1988). Avoiding Sex Bias in Selection Testing: Guidance for Employers. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission.

24.              Evers, A. (1996). Regulations Concerning Test Qualifications and Test Use in the Netherlands. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 12, 153-159.

25.              Eyde, L. D., Moreland, K. L. & Robertson, G. J. (1988). Test User Qualifications: A Data-based Approach to Promoting Good Test Use. Report for the Test User Qualifications Working Group. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

26.              Eyde, L. D., Nester, M. A., Heaton, S. M., & Nelson, A. V. (1994). Guide for administering written employment examinations to persons with disabilities. US Office of Personnel Management, Personnel Research and Development Center, Washing D. C. Report# PRDC-94-11.

27.              Eyde, L. D., Robertson, G. J., Krug, S. E. et al (1993). Responsible Test Use: Case Studies For Assessing Human Behaviour. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

28.              Eyde, L. D. & Robertson, G. J. (1994). Improving Test Use in the United States: A Brief History. Paper presented at the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology.

29.              Florance, I. (undated). European Qualifications for Psychometric Test Purchase: The Supply Side Perspective. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.

30.              Foltved, P. (1993). Psychological Tests and Testing in Europe. Survey for EFPPA by Dansk Psykolog Forening.

31.              Foxcroft, C.D. (1997). Psychological testing in South Africa: Perspectives regarding ethical and fair practices.  European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 229-235.

32.              Fremer, J., Diamond, E. E. & Camara, W. J. (1989). Developing a Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education. American Psychologist, 44, 1062-1067.

33.              Fremer, J. (1996). Promoting High Standards for Test Use: Developments in the United States. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 12, 160-168.

34.              Gregoire, J. (1997). Regulation of testing practice in European French-speaking countries.  The International Test Commission Newsletter, 7, 6-13.

35.              Grimsell, D. (1996). Survey of Psychological Test and Other Assessment Method Usage in the Careers Service 1994-1995. Sheffield, England: Report for the Department for Education and Employment.

36.              Hambleton, R. K. (1994). Guidelines for Adapting Educational and Psychological Tests: A Progress Report. Bulletin of the International Testing Commission, 10, 229-244.

37.              Haney, W. & Madaus, G. (1995). The Evolution of Ethical and Technical Standards For Testing. Madrid: EFPPA Task Force Report 14-15th June.

38.              Helskari, P. (1991). Report on Test Supply in Finland. Helsinki: Psykologien Kustannus.

39.              Heyse, H. (1996). Tests and Testing - the Situation in Germany. Working paper for Madrid.

40.              Hogrefe, G. J. (1991). Standards for Supplying Tests in the German Speaking Countries. Gottingen: Hogrefe & Huber.

41.              Hu, S. & Oakland, T. (1991). Global and Regional Perspectives on Testing Children and Youth: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Psychology, 26, 329-344.

42.              Huber, H. (1991). Report on Test Use and Distribution in Holland. Swets & Zeitlinger.

43.              Humberside Careers Service. (undated). Guidelines for The Use of Psychometric Tests. Humberside Careers Service.

44.              Institute of Personnel and Development. (1997). The IPD Guide on Psychological Testing. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.

45.              Institute of Personnel Management. (1993). IPM Code on Psychological Testing. London: Institute of Personnel Management.

46.              Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (1988). Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education. Washington DC: Joint Committee on Testing Practices.

47.              Joint committee on Testing Practices. (1996). Invitational Forum on Test Taker Rights and Responsibilities: Conference Proceedings. Maryland: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

48.              Kendall, I., Jenkinson, J., De Lemos, M. & Clancy, D. (1997). Supplement to Guidelines for the use of Psychological Tests. Australian Psychological Society.

49.              Kling, A. & Wallin, G. (1991). Report on Test Supply in Sweden. Stockholm: PsykologiForlaget AB.

50.              Koene, C. J. (1997). Tests and professional ethics and values in European Psychologists.  European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 13, 219-228.

51.              Lindsay, G. (1996). Psychology as an Ethical Discipline and Profession. European Psychologist, 1, 79-88.

52.              Linn, R. L. (1994). Performance Assessment: Policy Promises and Technical Measurement Standards. Educational Researcher, 23, 4-14.

53.              Mardberg, B. (1996). Improper Use of Tests in Sweden. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 4, 146-150.

54.              Miles, S. (1996). Survey of UK Test Publishers. Chapter from a PhD Thesis. Glasgow: Department of Management Studies.

55.              Moreland, K. L., Eyde, L. D., Robertson, G. J., Primoff, E. S. & Most, R. B. (1995). Assessment of Test User Qualifications: A Research-Based Measurement Procedure. American Psychologist, 50, 14-23.

56.              Muniz, J. (1995). Psychological Testing in Spain. Madrid: EFPPA Task Force Report 14-15th June.

57.              National PTA & Educational Testing Service. (1992). What Every Parent Should Know About Testing. Chicago: National Parent Teacher Association.

58.              Oakland, T. & Hu, S. (1991). Professionals Who Administer Tests with Children and Youth: An International Survey. 9, 108-120.

59.              Oakland, T. & Hu, S. (1992). The Top 10 Tests Used with Children and Youth Worldwide. Bulletin of the International Test Commission, 19, 99-120.

60.              Oakland, T. (1995). 44-Country Survey Shows International Test Use Patterns, Psychology International, 6, 7.

61.              Pickard, J. (1996). The Wrong Turns to Avoid with Tests. People Management, 8, 20-25.

62.              Poulson, A. (1991). Standards for Test Supply in Denmark. Copenhagen: Dansk Psykologisk Forlag.

63.              Psychological Solutions Consultancy. (1994). Test Practice Survey - Main Findings. Sunbury on Thames: Psychological Solutions Consultancy.

64.              Robertson, G. J. & Eyde, L. D. (1993). Improving Test Use in the United States: The Development of an Interdisciplinary Casebook. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 9, 137-146.

65.              Saville and Holdsworth Ltd. (1991). Equal Opportunities Guidelines for Best Test Practice in the Use of Personnel Selection Tests. Surrey: Saville and Holdsworth Ltd.

66.              Saville and Holdsworth Ltd. (1993). Best Practice in the Management of Psychometric Tests: Guidelines for Developing Policy. Surrey: Saville and Holdsworth Ltd.

67.              Schafer, W. D. (1992). Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests: RUST Statement Revised. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.

68.              Simner, M. L. (1991). Guidelines for Advertising Preschool Screening Tests. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

69.              Simner,  M. L. (1994). Recommendations by the Canadian Psychological Association for Improving the Safeguards that Help Protect the Public Against Test Misuse. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

70.              Simner, M. L. (1994). Canada's Reaction to Misleading Advertisements for Pre-School Screening Tests. School Psychology International, 15, 277-286.

71.              Simner, M. L. (1996). Recommendations by the Canadian Psychological Association for Improving the North American Safeguards that Help Protect the Public Against Test Misuse. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 12, 72-82.

72.              Sinclair, C., Poizner, S., Gilmour-Barrett, K. & Randall, D. (1991). The Development of a Code of Ethics for Canadian Psychologists. Cited in the Companion Manual for the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 1-11. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association.

73.              Sinclair, C. (1993). Comparison of CPA,  APA,  and ASPPB Codes. Ottawa: Canadian Psychological Association Committee on Ethics.

74.              SPA. (1994). Directory of Members. (1994). Singapore Psychological Society

75.              Swedish Psychological Association. (1991). Ethical Principles for Scandinavian Psychologists. Stockholm: Swedish Psychological Association.

76.              Tarantino, J. (1991). Report on Test Use and Distribution in Italy. Organizzazioni Speciali - Firenze.

77.              Test Publishers Association(ASE,  Saville etc.). (1994). Responsible Test Use. Guidelines for Test Publishers and Test Users. London: The Publishers Association.

78.              Test Publishers Association (ASE,  Saville etc.). (1994). Responsible Educational Test Use. Guidelines for Test Publishers and Test Users. London: The Publishers Association.

79.              The State of Selection: Current Practices and Main Results. (1991). Recruitment and Development Report, 16, 1-9.

80.              Tyler, B. (1985). The Use of Tests by Psychologists. Report on a Survey of the Members of the British Psychological Society. Leicester: British Psychological Society.

81.              Tyler, B. & Miller, K. M. (1990). Test User Qualification: A Data Base For Preventing Test Misuse: Setting the Standards. Paper presented at the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology.

82.              Tyler, B. (1991). Using Tests Responsibly and Effectively - The Role of Professional Judgement in Assessment. Paper presented at the 2nd European Congress of Psychology.

83.              Van de Vijver, F. & Hambleton, R. K. (1996). Translating Tests: Some Practical Guidelines. European Psychologist, 1, 89-99.

Return to Top

 



[1]  An example policy outline is contained in Appendix A.

 

[2]  An example ‘contract’ between test user and test taker is contained in Appendix B.

 

[3] The Guidelines in this section focus on what is ‘best practice’. However, in many countries, issues relating to the fair use of tests must also take account of national laws (e.g., the Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990, in the USA, or the Race Relations Act, 1976, in the UK).

[4] These Guidelines relate not only to different national languages and dialects, but also to special forms of communication, such as sign language, used to overcome the effects of forms of disability.

[5]  See Appendix B.

[6]  See Appendix C.

[8]  Legislation varies between countries on this issue. For example, the current UK Data Protection Act provides rights of access to data stored on computer different from those for data written on paper.

[9]  While tests and answer sheets are not normally passed on to others, there is some variation between countries in practice relating to what test takers or others are permitted to have. However, there is much greater variation in the expectations of test takers concerning what information they will be given. It is important that contracts make clear what they will not be given as well as what they will.

[10]  In the United States, for example, attention must be paid to the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990). In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act (1995), Employment Code of Practice states that „employers are required to revise tests – or the way the results of such tests are assessed – to take account of specific disabled candidates.“

[11]  For detailed guidance on this in the United States, see Eyde, Nestor, Heaton and Nelson (1994).

[12]  In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) also places some obligation on the individual to raise awareness of their needs.

Return to Top


Author: Dave Bartram. Copyright (c) 2001 International Test Commission. All rights reserved

Revised: 15/03/2004 14:1424/05/2001 17:3515 Mar 2004 14:14:21 +0200